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Measures and restrictions necessary for preventing the spread of COVID-19

Issuer:Government
Type:order
In force from:19.07.2021
In force until:
Translation published:19.07.2021

Measures and restrictions necessary for preventing the spread of COVID-19
[RT III, 23.11.2020, 1 - entry into force 24.11.2020]

Passed 19.08.2020 No. 282
RT III, 19.08.2020, 1
Entry into force 19.08.2020, partially 01.09.2020

Amended by the following legal instruments (show)

PassedPublishedEntry into force
28.08.2020RT III, 28.08.2020, 328.08.2020, partially 01.09.2020
03.09.2020RT III, 04.09.2020, 104.09.2020
11.09.2020RT III, 14.09.2020, 114.09.2020
24.09.2020RT III, 24.09.2020, 329.09.2020
26.09.2020RT III, 26.09.2020, 128.09.2020
29.09.2020RT III, 29.09.2020, 929.09.2020
09.10.2020RT III, 09.10.2020, 112.10.2020
15.10.2020RT III, 15.10.2020, 219.10.2020
29.10.2020RT III, 29.10.2020, 230.10.2020
12.11.2020RT III, 12.11.2020, 516.11.2020
23.11.2020RT III, 23.11.2020, 124.11.2020, partially 28.11.2020
03.12.2020RT III, 03.12.2020, 105.12.2020
04.12.2020RT III, 04.12.2020, 305.12.2020
10.12.2020RT III, 10.12.2020, 112.12.2020
17.12.2020RT III, 17.12.2020, 318.12.2020
23.12.2020RT III, 23.12.2020, 124.12.2020, partially 28.12.2020
29.12.2020RT III, 29.12.2020, 130.12.2020, partially 11.01.2021
30.12.2020RT III, 31.12.2020, 801.01.2021
08.01.2021RT III, 08.01.2021, 111.01.2021
13.01.2021RT III, 13.01.2021, 515.01.2021
15.01.2021RT III, 16.01.2021, 118.01.2021, partially 25.01.2021 and 01.02.2021
30.01.2021RT III, 30.01.2021, 401.02.2021, partially 03.02.2021
19.02.2021RT III, 19.02.2021, 722.02.2021
26.02.2021RT III, 26.02.2021, 201.03.2021
03.03.2021RT III, 03.03.2021, 106.03.2021, partially 15.03.2021
05.03.2021RT III, 05.03.2021, 106.03.2021
09.03.2021RT III, 09.03.2021, 1111.03.2021
01.04.2021RT III, 01.04.2021, 205.04.2021
22.04.2021RT III, 22.04.2021, 126.04.2021, partially 03.05.2021
29.04.2021RT III, 29.04.2021, 103.05.2021
30.04.2021RT III, 30.04.2021, 103.05.2021
06.05.2021RT III, 06.05.2021, 310.05.2021
13.05.2021RT III, 14.05.2021, 117.05.2021, partially 24.05.2021 and 31.05.2021
21.05.2021RT III, 21.05.2021, 924.05.2021, partially 31.05.2021
28.05.2021RT III, 29.05.2021, 231.05.2021, partially 01.06.2021 and 14.06.2021
01.06.2021RT III, 01.06.2021, 702.06.2021, partially 14.06.2021
03.06.2021RT III, 03.06.2021, 204.06.2021, in effect up to and including 13.06.2021
10.06.2021RT III, 10.06.2021, 311.06.2021, partially 01.07.2021
17.06.2021RT III, 17.06.2021, 228.06.2021, partially 21.06.2021
22.06.2021RT III, 22.06.2021, 623.06.2021, partially 28.06.2021
09.07.2021RT III, 10.07.2021, 319.07.2021
15.07.2021RT III, 16.07.2021, 419.07.2021

Under § 28 (2) 1) through 3) and 5) and § 28 (5) and (6) of the Communicable Diseases Prevention and Control Act and considering § 28 (8) of the same, the following restrictions are imposed:
[RT III, 29.05.2021, 2 - entry into force 01.06.2021]

1. A person who has crossed the state border for the purpose of entering Estonia shall remain in their place of residence or permanent place of stay for 10 calendar days after arrival in Estonia.
[RT III, 29.10.2020, 2 – entry into force 30.10.2020]

11[Repealed – RT III, 01.04.2021, 2 – entry into force 05.04.2021]

2. The 10-calendar-day restriction referred to in clause 1 does not apply if:
1) up to 72 hours before arrival in Estonia a health care provider tested the relevant person with RT-PCR test for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 or up to 48 hours before arrival in Estonia with a SARS-CoV-2 antigen RTD test approved by the European Union Health Security Committee (hereinafter SARS-CoV-2 test), the results of which came back negative, and after arrival in Estonia no earlier than on the sixth day after the first test a health care provider tested the person with a second SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test and the results of that test also came back negative or a physician has declared the person not to be contagious. Until the test has come back negative the person is required to remain in their place of residence or permanent place of stay;
2) a health care provider has not tested the relevant person with a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test up to 72 hours before arrival in the country or with a SARS-CoV-2 antigen RTD test up to 48 hours before arrival in the country but the person took said test promptly after arrival in Estonia and the results of that test came back negative and no earlier than on the sixth day after the initial test the person took a second RT-PCR test for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 and the results of that test also came back negative or a physician has declared the person not to be contagious. Until the test has come back negative the person is required to remain in their place of residence or permanent place of stay;
3) a person arrives from a third country for which information has not been released on the European Union green list published on the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter European Union green list) and promptly after arrival in Estonia a health care provider tests the person with a SARS-CoV-2 test and the results of that test come back negative and re-tests the person with a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test no earlier than on the sixth day after the initial test and the results of that test also come back negative or a physician has declared the person not to be contagious. Until the test has come back negative the person is required to remain in their place of residence or permanent place of stay.
If according to this clause a health care provider tested a person with a SARS-CoV-2 antigen RTD test and it came back positive but the person was promptly re-tested with a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test which came back negative, the result of the SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test shall be the one that counts.
[RT III, 10.07.2021, 3 – entry into force 19.07.2021]

3. A person referred to in clauses 1 and 2 may leave their place of residence or permanent place of stay provided the person takes measures imposed by the Government of the Republic or the Health Board and all other possible measures for preventing the possible spread of the communicable disease and the following circumstances occur:
1) the person is given an order by a health care professional or a police officer to leave their place of residence or permanent place of stay;
2) the person leaves their place of residence or permanent place of stay because a health care professional has referred them to receive health services or in the event of an emergency that puts the person’s life or health at risk;
3) the person referred to in sub-clauses 1) and 2) of clause 2 performs urgent and inevitably necessary duties by a decision of their employer and up to 72 hours before arrival in the country a health care provider tested the person with a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test or up to 48 hours before arrival in the country with a SARS-CoV-2 antigen RTD test or after arrival in the country with at least one test for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19, the results of which came back negative, or a physician has declared the person not to be contagious. Until the test has come back negative the person is required to remain in their place of residence or permanent place of stay;
[RT III, 10.07.2021, 3 – entry into force 19.07.2021]
4) a person who arrives in Estonia from a third country referred to in sub-clause 3) of clause 2 performs urgent and inevitably necessary duties by a decision of their employer and after arrival in the country a health care provider tested the person with a SARS-CoV-2 test and the results of that test came back negative or if a physician has declared the person not to be contagious. Until the test has come back negative the person is required to remain in their place of residence or permanent place of stay. A person who performs urgent and inevitably necessary duties is also deemed to be an athlete, a coach or a team member who has an employment relationship with a club playing in Estonian championship league or who is involved in an athlete’s everyday training activities at the Estonian national team level or who participates in an international high level competition as an athlete or an athlete’s team member or who is directly involved in carrying out aforesaid sports competition;
[RT III, 10.07.2021, 3 – entry into force 19.07.2021]
5) the person attends an urgent family occasion and up to 72 hours before arrival in the country a health care provider tested the person with a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test or up to 48 hours before arrival in the country with a SARS-CoV-2 antigen RTD test or after arrival in the country with at least one test for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19, the results of which came back negative, or if a physician has declared the person not to be contagious. This sub-clause applies to a person arriving from a third country referred to in sub-clause 3) of clause 2 only if a health care provider tested the person with a SARS-CoV-2 test promptly after arrival in Estonia and the result of that test was negative. Until the test has come back negative the person is required to remain in their place of residence or permanent place of stay;
[RT III, 10.07.2021, 3 – entry into force 19.07.2021]
6) the person is getting the everyday essentials near their place of residence or place of stay because it is otherwise impossible;
7) the person is outdoors and completely avoids contact with other persons;
8) for the performance of urgent duties, acquiring an education or due to a family occasion, the person returns to the country from where the person arrived in Estonia provided up to 72 hours before leaving Estonia a health care provider tested the person with a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test or up to 48 hours before leaving Estonia with a SARS-CoV-2 antigen RTD test, the results of which came back negative, or if a physician has declared the person not to be contagious.
[RT III, 10.07.2021, 3 – entry into force 19.07.2021]
[Last sentence repealed – RT III, 10.07.2021, 3 – entry into force 19.07.2021]

31[Repealed – RT III, 13.01.2021, 5 – entry into force 15.01.2021]

4. The provisions of clauses 1 through 3 do not apply to asymptomatic persons:
1) who are employees of a diplomatic mission or a consular post of a foreign country or the Republic of Estonia or their family members or holders of an Estonian diplomatic passport;
2) who arrive in the Republic of Estonia in the framework of international military cooperation;
3) who are members of foreign delegations arriving in the Republic of Estonia for the performance of duties on the invitation of a state or local authority;
4) who are directly involved in transporting goods and raw products, including loading of goods or raw products, and who arrive in Estonia for the performance of duties;
5) who arrive in Estonia for the purpose of providing health services or other services necessary for responding to an emergency;
6) who are directly involved in international carriage of goods and passengers, including a crew member and a ship’s crew member servicing an international means of transport and a person performing repairs or warranty or maintenance work on such a means of transport, and who arrive in Estonia for the performance of duties;
7) whose purpose for arriving in the Republic of Estonia is directly related to the provision of passenger transport services and who are servicing travel groups;
8) whose purpose for arriving in the Republic of Estonia is related to ensuring the continuity of a vital service;
9) who are using the territory of the Republic of Estonia for immediate transit;
10) who are nationals, residents or long-stay visa holders of a Member State of the European Union or a Schengen Member State or an EEA country or the Swiss Confederation or the Principality of Andorra or the Principality of Monaco or the Republic of San Marino or the Vatican City State (Holy See) or the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland or their family members and who arrive in the Republic of Estonia from said countries and who have been in one or several of said countries for the past 10 days in succession, provided the cumulative number of positive tests for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 per 100,000 inhabitants in said countries for the past 14 days is equal to or less than 75. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs publishes information on the morbidity rates by country on its website;
[RT III, 16.07.2021, 4 - entry into force 19.07.2021]
11) who are persons referred to in sub-clause 10) or persons who are residents of a third country, according to the laws of that country, which is on the European Union green list and who arrive in Estonia from said country, provided the cumulative number of positive tests for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 per 100,000 inhabitants in said country for the past 14 days is equal to or less than 75;
[RT III, 17.06.2021, 2 – entry into force 21.06.2021]
12) [repealed – RT III, 10.07.2021, 3 – entry into force 19.07.2021]
13) who cross the state border between the Republic of Estonia and the Republic of Latvia at least twice a week for the purpose of urgent cross-border work or studies, provided the relevant person has taken at least one test for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 during the past seven days and the results of that test have come back negative or a physician has declared the person not to be contagious;
[RT III, 30.04.2021, 1 – entry into force 03.05.2021]
14) whose place of residence is in the administrative territory of the local authorities of Valga in the Republic of Estonia or Valka in the Republic of Latvia and who cross the state border between the Republic of Estonia and the Republic of Latvia provided they will not go beyond the borders of the administrative territory of the local authorities of Valga and Valka, respectively;
[RT III, 30.04.2021, 1 – entry into force 03.05.2021]
15) who arrive in Estonia for tourism purposes for up to 24 hours if up to 72 hours before arrival in Estonia a health care provider tested the person with a RT-PCR test for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 the results of which came back negative or if up to 48 hours before arrival in Estonia a health care provider tested the person with a SARS-CoV-2 antigen RTD test which came back negative, unless the person is released from the requirement of testing on other grounds provided for in this Order;
[RT III, 10.07.2021, 3 – entry into force 19.07.2021]
16) who are nationals, residents or long-stay visa holders of a Member State of the European Union or a Schengen Member State or an EEA country or the Swiss Confederation or the Principality of Andorra or the Principality of Monaco or the Republic of San Marino or the Vatican City State (Holy See) or the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland or their family members and who arrive in the Republic of Estonia from said countries and who have been in one or several of said countries for the past 10 days in succession, if the cumulative number of positive tests for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 per 100,000 inhabitants in said countries for the past 14 days is greater than 75 but no higher than 200 and before arrival in Estonia a health care provider tested them with a SARS-CoV-2 test which came back negative or they were tested with said test promptly after arrival in Estonia and said test came back negative. Until the test has come back negative the person is required to remain in their place of residence or permanent place of stay. If according to this sub-clause a health care provider tested a person with a SARS-CoV-2 antigen RTD test and it came back positive but the person was promptly re-tested with a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test which came back negative, the result of the SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test shall be the one that counts. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs publishes information on the morbidity rates by country on its website;
[RT III, 16.07.2021, 4 - entry into force 19.07.2021]
17) who are 12 to 18-year-old nationals, residents or long-stay visa holders of a Member State of the European Union or a Schengen Member State or an EEA country or the Swiss Confederation or the Principality of Andorra or the Principality of Monaco or the Republic of San Marino or the Vatican City State (Holy See) or the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and who have been in one or several of said countries for the past 10 days in succession, if the cumulative number of positive tests for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 per 100,000 inhabitants in said countries for the past 14 days is greater than 75, and who arrive in the Republic of Estonia together with their legal representative or a person authorised to accompany them who is not subject to the 10-calendar-day requirement to remain in their place of residence or permanent place of stay or to the requirements for testing for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19, as set out in this Order, on the condition that before arrival in Estonia a health care provider tested them with a SARS-CoV-2 test which came back negative or a health care provider tested them with said test promptly after arrival in Estonia and said test came back negative. Until the test has come back negative the person is required to remain in their place of residence or permanent place of stay. If according to this sub-clause a health care provider tested a person with a SARS-CoV-2 antigen RTD test and it came back positive but the person was promptly re-tested with a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test which came back negative, the result of the SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test shall be the one that counts. The provisions of this sub-clause do not apply to groups of minors travelling together (for instance, sports and tourist groups);
[RT III, 16.07.2021, 4 - entry into force 19.07.2021]
18) who are 12 to 18-year-old persons arriving in the Republic of Estonia from a third country on the European Union green list, if the cumulative number of positive tests for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 per 100,000 inhabitants in said country for the past 14 days is greater than 75, and who arrive in the Republic of Estonia together with their legal representative or a person authorised to accompany them who is not subject to the 10-calendar-day requirement to remain in their place of residence or permanent place of stay or to the requirements for testing for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19, as set out in this Order, on the condition that before arrival in Estonia a health care provider tested them with a SARS-CoV-2 test which came back negative or a health care provider tested them with said test promptly after arrival in Estonia and said test came back negative. Until the test has come back negative the person is required to remain in their place of residence or permanent place of stay. If according to this sub-clause a health care provider tested a person with a SARS-CoV-2 antigen RTD test and it came back positive but the person was promptly re-tested with a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test which came back negative, the result of the SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test shall be the one that counts. The provisions of this sub-clause do not apply to groups of minors travelling together (for instance, sports and tourist groups). The Ministry of Foreign Affairs publishes information on the morbidity rates by country on its website;
[RT III, 16.07.2021, 4 - entry into force 19.07.2021]
19) who are 12 to 18-year-old persons arriving in the Republic of Estonia from a third country not on the European Union green list and who arrive in Estonia together with their legal representative or a person authorised to accompany them who is not subject to the 10-calendar-day requirement to remain in their place of residence or permanent place of stay or to the requirements for testing for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19, as set out in this Order, on the condition that a health care provider tested them with a SARS-CoV-2 test promptly after arrival in Estonia which came back negative. Until the test has come back negative the person is required to remain in their place of residence or permanent place of stay. If according to this sub-clause a health care provider tested a person with a SARS-CoV-2 antigen RTD test and it came back positive but the person was promptly re-tested with a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test which came back negative, the result of the SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test shall be the one that counts. The provisions of this sub-clause do not apply to groups of minors travelling together (for instance, sports and tourist groups);
[RT III, 16.07.2021, 4 - entry into force 19.07.2021]
20) who are persons under 12 years of age arriving in the Republic of Estonia together with their legal representative or a person authorised to accompany them who is not subject to the 10-calendar-day requirement to remain in their place of residence or permanent place of stay or to the requirements for testing for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19, as set out in this Order. The provisions of this sub-clause do not apply to groups of minors travelling together (for instance, sports and tourist groups).
[RT III, 16.07.2021, 4 - entry into force 19.07.2021]

41.[Repealed – RT III, 09.10.2020, 1 – entry into force 12.10.2020]

42. [Repealed – RT III, 01.04.2021, 2 – entry into force 05.04.2021]

43[Repealed – RT III, 30.04.2021, 1 – entry into force 03.05.2021]

44[Repealed – RT III, 13.01.2021, 5 – entry into force 15.01.2021]

45[Repealed – RT III, 01.04.2021, 2 – entry into force 05.04.2021]

5. [Repealed – RT III, 04.09.2020, 1 – entry into force 04.09.2020]

6. [Repealed – RT III, 30.01.2021, 4 – entry into force 01.02.2021]

61The 10-calendar-day requirement to remain in one’s place of residence or permanent place of stay and the requirements for being tested for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19, as referred to in this Order, are not applied if a person:
1) has suffered from COVID-19 and no more than 180 days have passed since the SARS-CoV-2 test confirming the diagnosis was carried out or since the date of confirmation of the diagnosis;
[RT III, 16.07.2021, 4 - entry into force 19.07.2021]
2) has completed the vaccination series for COVID-19, has developed full protection after the last dose of vaccine and no more than one year has passed since;
3)  has been given one dose of vaccine after recovering from COVID-19 and has developed full protection after the dose of vaccine and no more than one year has passed since, or, after the first dose of vaccine, has contracted COVID-19 and has recovered from COVID-19 and no more than one year has passed since the SARS-CoV-2 test confirming the diagnosis was carried out or since the date of confirmation of the diagnosis. If a person contracts COVID-19 within two weeks after the first dose of vaccine, the person will be subject to the provisions of sub-clause 1) applicable to recovered persons.
[RT III, 16.07.2021, 4 - entry into force 19.07.2021]

62. The time when the full protection referred to in clause 61 is developed is, according to the manufacturers, 7 calendar days after the second dose of vaccine for Pfizer/BioNTech Vaccine Comirnaty, 15 calendar days after the second dose of vaccine for AstraZeneca Vaccine Vaxzevria, 14 calendar days after the second dose of vaccine for Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine, and 14 calendar days after one dose of vaccine for Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine. For other COVID-19 vaccines not mentioned in this clause, the specific manufacturer’s instructions for full protection shall be followed. Full protection for recovered persons vaccinated with one dose is deemed to have been developed at the times stated in this clause.
[RT III, 29.05.2021, 2 – entry into force 01.06.2021]

63. In addition to the bases set out in sub-clauses 1) through 3) of clause 61 of this Order, the requirements for testing for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 as provided for in this Order are not applied if the relevant person:
1) is under 12 years of age;
2) has special needs and their testing is not sensible considering other significant reasons.
[RT III, 10.06.2021, 3 – entry into force 11.06.2021]

7. Public events, sports competitions and sports and exercise events if the requirements established for the participants differ from those set out in this Order are allowed on the following conditions:
[RT III, 08.01.2021, 1 – entry into force 11.01.2021]
1) there is an overriding public or national interest in the relevant event;
2) the local authority of the location of the event has provided an opinion on the activity;
3) the Health Board has provided an opinion on the suitability of the risk management plan drawn up by the organiser of the event for preventing the spread of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing the COVID-19 disease.

8. The 10-calendar-day requirement to remain in one’s place of residence or permanent place of stay and the requirements for being tested for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19, as referred to in this Order, are not applied to persons performing at a public event referred to in clause 7 or persons directly involved in carrying out such an event or persons who participate in a sports competition or a sports event as an athlete or an athlete’s team member or who are directly involved in carrying out a sports competition or a sports event. The Health Board shall establish necessary restrictions on the freedom of movement of said persons.
[RT III, 30.01.2021, 4 – entry into force 01.02.2021]

81In public indoor spaces, persons may be and move around together while practising physical distancing. This restriction does not apply to families and in cases when said requirements cannot be reasonably ensured. For the purposes of this Order, public indoor space means a space that has been given to the disposal of unspecified people or that is at the disposal of unspecified people or in which unspecified people are allowed to be; among other things, public transport vehicles are also public indoor space.
[RT III, 29.05.2021, 2 – entry into force 31.05.2021]

82[Repealed – RT III, 01.06.2021, 7 – entry into force 02.06.2021]

9. [Repealed – RT III, 14.05.2021, 1 – entry into force 17.05.2021]

91[Repealed – RT III, 14.05.2021, 1 – entry into force 17.05.2021]

10. [Repealed – RT III, 14.05.2021, 1 – entry into force 17.05.2021]

11. [Repealed – RT III, 14.05.2021, 1 – entry into force 17.05.2021]

12. [Repealed – RT III, 10.06.2021, 3 – entry into force 11.06.2021]

13. [Repealed – RT III, 14.05.2021, 1 – entry into force 17.05.2021]

14. [Repealed – RT III, 14.05.2021, 1 – entry into force 17.05.2021]

15. [Repealed – RT III, 14.05.2021, 1 – entry into force 17.05.2021]

16. [Repealed – RT III, 14.05.2021, 1 – entry into force 17.05.2021]

17. [Repealed – RT III, 14.05.2021, 1 – entry into force 17.05.2021]

18. [Repealed – RT III, 14.05.2021, 1 – entry into force 17.05.2021]

19. [Repealed – RT III, 14.05.2021, 1 – entry into force 17.05.2021]

20. [Repealed – RT III, 14.05.2021, 1 – entry into force 17.05.2021]

201[Repealed – RT III, 01.06.2021, 7 – entry into force 02.06.2021]

202[Repealed – RT III, 16.01.2021, 1 – entry into force 18.01.2021]

203[Repealed – RT III, 16.01.2021, 1 – entry into force 18.01.2021]

204[Repealed – RT III, 08.01.2021, 1 – entry into force 11.01.2021]

205[Repealed – RT III, 08.01.2021, 1 – entry into force 11.01.2021]

206[Repealed – RT III, 08.01.2021, 1 – entry into force 11.01.2021]

207[Repealed – RT III, 08.01.2021, 1 – entry into force 11.01.2021]

208[Repealed – RT III, 16.01.2021, 1 – entry into force 25.01.2021]

209[Repealed – RT III, 16.01.2021, 1 – entry into force 01.02.2021]

2010[Repealed – RT III, 29.12.2020, 1 – entry into force 30.12.2020]

2011[Repealed – RT III, 30.01.2021, 4 – entry into force 01.02.2021]

2012[Repealed – RT III, 30.01.2021, 4 – entry into force 03.02.2021]

2013[Repealed – RT III, 01.06.2021, 7 – entry into force 02.06.2021]

2014As of 28 June 2021, for the purpose of preventing the spread of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19, the following measures and restrictions shall additionally apply:
1) engaging in sports, training, youth work, hobby activities, hobby education and refresher training are allowed indoors if it is ensured that the number of participants is no higher than a total of 1000 people and the requirements provided for in clause 81 are met. The availability of disinfectants and compliance with the disinfection requirements according to instructions from the Health Board shall be ensured. The restriction on the number of people provided for in this sub-clause does not apply to activities related to the military defence or internal security of the state;
2) engaging in sports, training, youth work, hobby activities, hobby education and refresher training are allowed outdoors if it is ensured that the number of participants is no higher than a total of 5000 people. This restriction does not apply to activities related to the military defence or internal security of the state;
3) outdoor sports competitions and sports and exercise events in a confined territory are allowed if it is ensured that the number of participants and spectators is no higher than a total of 5000 people;
4) indoor sports competitions and sports and exercise events are allowed if it is ensured that the total number of participants and spectators is no higher than 1000 persons and the requirements provided for in clause 81 are met. The availability of disinfectants and compliance with the disinfection requirements according to instructions from the Health Board shall be ensured;
5) people may be and move around in indoor public saunas, spas, swimming pools and water parks if it is ensured that the total number of participants is no higher than 1000 persons and the requirements provided for in clause 81 are met. The availability of disinfectants and compliance with the disinfection requirements according to instructions from the Health Board shall be ensured indoors. It is allowed to be and move around in outdoor public saunas, spas, swimming pools and water parks on the condition that the number of participants is no higher than a total of 5000 people. The restriction on the number of people provided for in this sub-clause does not apply to the proprietor of a place of provision of service or their representative, employees, persons involved in emergency work or persons necessary for economic servicing of the place;
6) indoor public meetings, public events, including conferences, theatre performances, concerts and film screenings, provision of entertainment services and people being and moving around at public indoor religious services and other public indoor religious rites are allowed if it is ensured that the total number of attendees is no higher than 1000 people and the requirements provided for in clause 81 are met. Availability of disinfectants to employees and customers and compliance with the disinfection requirements according to instructions from the Health Board shall be ensured. The restriction on the number of people set out in this sub-clause does not apply to organisers or the proprietor of a place for carrying out activities or providing services or their representative, employees, contractors, artists, persons involved in emergency work or persons necessary for economic servicing of the place;
7) in a confined territory, outdoor public meetings, public events, including conferences, theatre performances, concerts and film screenings, provision of entertainment services and people being and moving around at public outdoor religious services and other public outdoor religious rites are allowed if it is ensured that the number of attendees is no higher than a total of 5000 people. This restriction does not apply to organisers or the proprietor of a place for carrying out activities or providing services or their representative, employees, contractors, artists, persons involved in emergency work or persons necessary for economic servicing of the place;
8) people may be and move around in indoor museums and exhibition facilities if it is ensured that the total number of visitors is no higher than 1000 people per room and the requirements provided for in clause 81 are met. The availability of disinfectants and compliance with the disinfection requirements according to instructions from the Health Board shall be ensured. The restriction on the number of people set out in this sub-clause does not apply to organisers or the proprietor of a place for carrying out activities or providing services or their representative, employees, contractors, artists, persons involved in emergency work or persons necessary for economic servicing of the place;
9) in indoor settings, customers may be and move around in catering establishments’ sales or service area, the sales area of stores and public spaces of commercial establishments and service providers’ service areas if compliance with the requirements provided for in clause 81 is ensured. The availability of disinfectants and compliance with the disinfection requirements according to instructions from the Health Board shall be ensured.
[RT III, 22.06.2021, 6 – entry into force 28.06.2021]

2015[Repealed – RT III, 01.06.2021, 7 – entry into force 02.06.2021]

2016An organiser of activities may carry out activities with a number of participants higher than the number of people provided for in clause 2014 if the application of other restrictions and measures provided for in clause 2014 for the relevant area and compliance with the requirements provided for in clauses 2017 through 2020 are ensured. If a public event, sports competition or sports and exercise event is planned to be organised on conditions different from those provided for in clauses 2014 and 2017 through 2020, clause 7 shall apply.
[RT III, 22.06.2021, 6 – entry into force 23.06.2021]

2017An organiser of activities may carry out activities in the event provided for in clause 2016 if it is ensured that no more than 6000 people attend in indoor settings and no more than 12,000 people attend in outdoor settings per calendar day on the condition that the activities are attended by persons who have been tested by a health care provider as set out in this clause and the test results came back negative, on the following conditions:
[RT III, 22.06.2021, 6 – entry into force 28.06.2021]
1) an antigen RTD test for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 must be takenup to 48 hours before participation in the activities;
[RT III, 10.07.2021, 3 – entry into force 19.07.2021]
2) an RT-PCR test for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 must be taken up to 72 hours before participation in the activities.
[RT III, 22.06.2021, 6 – entry into force 23.06.2021]

2018When arranging the testing provided for in clause 2017, an organiser of activities shall ensure compliance with the requirements provided for in clause 81 and the availability of disinfectants and compliance with the disinfection requirements according to instructions from the Health Board.
[RT III, 22.06.2021, 6 – entry into force 23.06.2021]

2019The following persons are released from the testing provided for in clause 2017:
1) persons under 12 years of age;
2) persons with special needs if testing them is not reasonable considering other important reasons;
3) on the conditions provided for in clauses 61 and 62, persons who have recovered from COVID-19 or who are vaccinated or persons considered equal to vaccinated persons if they present a certificate evidencing those facts before participating in activities.
[RT III, 22.06.2021, 6 – entry into force 23.06.2021]

2020An organiser of activities is required to verify the authenticity and validity of the test or certificate provided for in clauses 2017 and 2019 and establish the identity of the person presenting the certificate or test before the person participates in activities.
[RT III, 22.06.2021, 6 – entry into force 23.06.2021]

21. Under § 44 (1) of the Communicable Diseases Prevention and Control Act, supervision over the requirements imposed by this Order is exercised by the Health Board. The Health Board may involve the Police and Border Guard Board in the supervision, adhering to the requirements and procedure for professional assistance provided for in the Administrative Co-operation Act.

22. The restrictions and measures established by this Order shall apply until the date specified in this Order or until this Order is changed or repealed under § 53 (1) 4) and (2) 3) and § 66 (2) 1) of the Administrative Procedure Act and the need for these restrictions and measures shall be reviewed no later than after every two weeks.
[RT III, 14.05.2021, 1 – entry into force 17.05.2021]

23. This Order takes effect on 19 August 2020. Clause 2 and sub-clause 3) of clause 3 take effect on 1 September 2020.

24. [Omitted from this text.]

25. This Order shall be published on the website of the Government of the Republic and in the official gazette Riigi Teataja.

This Order is issued considering the fact that under § 2 2) of the Communicable Diseases Prevention and Control Act the COVID-19 disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 corresponds to the signs of a dangerous novel communicable disease because there is no effective treatment and the spread of the disease may exceed the hospital treatment capacity, and the requirements, measures and restrictions established by this Order clearly have a significant social and economic effect. The risk of the virus spreading is currently very high and therefore, in order to minimise the risk, it is proportional to restrict people’s freedom of movement in the places referred to in the Order for the protection of the life and health of people and overriding public interest in order to prevent the spread of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing the COVID-19 disease.

For the protection of the life and health of people and overriding public interest, including for the protection of the continuity of the state, this Order establishes requirements, measures and restrictions that are inevitably necessary for preventing the spread of the virus. The reasons and considerations are set out in the explanatory memorandum to the Order, which will be published on the website of the Government of the Republic.

Failure to duly comply with measures for preventing the spread of the virus will prompt the application of the administrative coercive measures set out in § 28 (2) or (3) of the Law Enforcement Act. The maximum amount of penalty payment is 9600 euros. This penalty payment, which serves the purpose of enforcing the requirements, measures and restrictions imposed by this Order and preventing the spread of the virus, may be imposed repeatedly.

This Order can be appealed against by filing a challenge with the Government of the Republic pursuant to the procedure provided by the Administrative Procedure Act within 30 days as of the day the relevant person became or should have become aware of the Order. This Order can also be appealed against by filing an action with the administrative court pursuant to the procedure provided for in the Code of Administrative Court Procedure within 30 days as of the day of announcement of this Order.

 

Reasons for the amendments made by the Government of the Republic Order No. 256 of 15 July 2021

For the protection of the life and health of people and overriding public interest, including for the protection of the continuity of the state, this Order imposes indispensable measures and restrictions for preventing the spread of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19.

§ 28 (1) of the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia (hereinafter the Constitution) provides for everyone’s right to protection of his or her health. In this case the fundamental right protects different values. Firstly, people’s right to protection of their health by having the state do everything in its power to stop the spread of the virus. Also, public interest in avoiding increased spread of the virus and mass infections as well as overload of the health care system. In a situation where contact with other people poses a great risk of the virus spreading the state has an obligation to minimise the risk of infection, which also means that, for the purpose of achieving this objective, contact between people may be restricted in an appropriate manner.

The Constitution provides for rights and freedoms that the state is also required to ensure. The state may circumscribe the rights and freedoms set out in the Constitution considering the nature of the right or freedom in question and the conditions arising from the Constitution itself. For instance, under § 34 of the Constitution everyone whose presence in Estonian territory is lawful has the right to move freely in that territory and to choose freely where to reside. The right to move freely may be circumscribed in cases and pursuant to the procedure provided by law for the purpose of protecting the rights and freedoms of others and preventing the spread of a communicable disease, among others. It is justified to apply certain restrictions for preventing the spread of the virus causing COVID-19. Setting restrictions on rights and freedoms requires a fair balance between the objective sought by the restriction and the scope and effect of the restriction. Whereas, it is important to consider how can people, in the long run, exercise their other fundamental rights, such as right to liberty of movement and to engage in enterprise, if the virus that causes COVID-19 is not contained in Estonia and health care institutions are overloaded and health workers are overworked. Proportional restrictions necessary for stopping the virus are justified by the above compelling objectives.

Under § 28 (2), (5) and (6) of the Communicable Diseases Prevention and Control Act (hereinafter the Act) and considering § 28 (8) thereof, the Government of the Republic may take measures for preventing communicable diseases when the application of measures and restrictions for the prevention of an epidemic spread of communicable diseases has a significant effect on society or economy. The following preconditions must be met: it is an extremely dangerous communicable disease or a dangerous novel communicable disease; the Health Board has given the Government of the Republic information and a recommendation on a measure (obligation or restriction) on the basis of epidemiological, laboratory and clinical information; the measure is absolutely necessary for preventing the spread of the virus or in other words the requirement must be proportional and rational; the measure is temporary or in other words limited in time and it brings about a significant social or economic effect.

Various restrictions on the freedom of movement and various measures for preventing and stopping the spread of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 have been established by the Government of the Republic Order No. 282 “Measures and restrictions necessary for preventing the spread of COVID-19” of 19 August 2020 (hereinafter Order No. 282), which serve the purpose of reducing contact between people and preventing the spread of the virus.

Establishment of the restrictions by the Order is based on the fact that COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is an infectious disease that spreads from one person to another by way of droplet infection, primarily upon close contact with an infectious person. The virus can be contracted when in close contact with an infected person, by inhaling particles of the virus1, or through contaminated surfaces or, for example, contaminated hands. The virus can spread in poorly ventilated and/or crowded indoor settings, where people tend to spend longer periods of time. This is because aerosols (particles of the virus) remain suspended in the air or travel farther than 1 metre. People in risk groups (including older people) are in greater risk of the disease becoming serious or of complications or of needing hospital treatment.

Between 26 February 2020 and 12 July 2021, 131,508 laboratory-confirmed cases were recorded and the cumulative morbidity for said period of time per population of 100,000 is 9895.4. On 14 July 2021, the morbidity for the last 14 days per population of 100,000 was 41.76 (on 5 July 2021 said figure was 29.5).

During week 27, 301 new cases were registered. Compared to the week before, the number of new cases was 32.6% higher. During week 27, 21,263 tests were analysed (1603 tests per 100,000 inhabitants), which is 9.1% more than in week 26. 1.4% of the tests came back positive (1.2% in week 26; increase ~17%). The highest percentage of positive tests can be seen in Võru County (4.5%), Pärnu County (3.8%) and Valga County (3.4%).

In week 27, 275 cases were analysed (91% of detected cases). According to the data analysed, the place of becoming infected remained unknown in 25% of the cases (28.3% in week 26). As of week 49 of 2020, 30% to 36% of the total number of cases have involved infected persons with unknown location of contraction of the infection. In week 27, the place of becoming infected was abroad in 20.4% of the cases, within family in 23.3% of the cases, within circle of acquaintances in 10% of the cases and at work in 7.6% of the cases. The pattern of locations of contraction of the infection has not significantly changed compared to week 26. A reduction could be noticed in terms of becoming infected abroad (24.9%→20.4%), within family (25.4%→23.3%) and in unknown places (28.3%→25%). An increase took place in the percentage of new cases at work (6%→7.6%) and within circle of acquaintances (6%→10%). 7% of cases involved people becoming infected during company summer events and public entertainment and sports and other events. No cases in health care institutions or child care and educational institutions were reported.

The percentage of infected people who do not know where they contracted the infection has decreased over the past 14 days (weeks 26–27) and accounts for 26.7% of cases (in weeks 25–26 it was 30.6%).

By 12 July 2021 a total of 7693 samples had been sequenced and the following found:
   – 5385 Alpha variants;
   – 68 Beta variants, 27 of them imported cases; 2 cases proved to be Gamma variants in further sequencing;
   – 9 Gamma variants;
   – 602 Delta variants (one of them B.617.1 and 319 B.1.617.2).

A total of 713 Delta variants have been typified in Estonia and 10% of these cases have been imported, 55% of which from Russia. As of week 22 the percentage of the Delta variants started growing fast. According to Synlab, the percentage of samples indicating the Delta variant has grown from 7% (week 22) to 80% (week 27). 120 samples from infected persons who had been vaccinated have been sequenced and 101 of these proved to be the Alpha variant (accounts for 1.9% of all sequenced samples), 13 the Delta variant (1.8%) and 1 the Beta variant (1.5%). In week 26 the Delta variant became dominant and it has started spreading within the country.

The Health Board finds that the rate at which the virus spreads in Estonia has picked up. The infection coefficient R remains steady at 1.1 to 1.3 throughout Estonia (last week it was 1.0 to 1.2) R is clearly on the rise. It is associated with the increase in the percentage of the Delta variant. In the Southern and Western regions R, or the infection coefficient, is rising very fast (epidemically) (last week in the Southern region R was 0.8 and this week 1.8; last week in the Western region R was 0.7, this week 2.0). The growth rate in these regions confirms the onset of an increase in morbidity. In the Northern and Eastern regions R is stable.

This Order has been drawn up considering the fact that the morbidity per 100,000 people per 14 days in Estonia is medium. On 14 July 2021, the ratio of positive tests from the last 14 days to 100,000 inhabitants was 41.76 and the average rate of positive tests from the last 7 days was 46.

This Order seeks to update the restrictions and measures imposed for the purpose of preventing the spread of COVID-19, considering Council Recommendation 2021/961 amending Recommendation 2020/1475 on a coordinated approach to the restriction of free movement in response to the COVID-19 pandemic (hereinafter Recommendation 2021/961) and Regulation (EU) 2021/953 of the European Parliament and of the Council on a framework for the issuance, verification and acceptance of interoperable COVID-19 vaccination, test and recovery certificates to facilitate free movement during the COVID-19 pandemic (hereinafter EU Digital COVID Certificate Regulation).

On 13 October 2020 the Council adopted Recommendation (EU) 2020/1475 on a coordinated approach to the restriction of free movement in response to the COVID-19 pandemic2. Recommendation (EU) 2020/1475 established a coordinated approach on the following key points: the application of common criteria and thresholds when deciding whether to introduce restrictions to free movement, a mapping of the risk of COVID-19 transmission based on an agreed colour code, and a coordinated approach as to the measures, if any, which may appropriately be applied to persons moving between areas, depending on the level of risk of transmission in those areas.

Member States may, in accordance with Union law, limit the fundamental right of free movement on grounds of public health. Any restrictions to the free movement of persons within the Union put in place to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2 should be based on specific and limited public interest grounds, namely the protection of public health. It is necessary for such limitations to be applied in compliance with the general principles of Union law, in particular proportionality and non‐discrimination. Any measures taken should therefore be strictly limited in scope and time, in line with the efforts to restore free movement within the Union, and should not extend beyond what is strictly necessary to safeguard public health.

The EU Digital COVID Certificate Regulation took effect on 1 July 2021. As of this date, vaccinated, tested or recovered persons have a right to obtain an EU Digital COVID certificate, including when they have been vaccinated before the date of application of the EU Digital COVID Certificate Regulation, even if as part of a clinical trial. Certificates issued in line with the EU Digital COVID Certificate Regulation should be the primary tool to be used in the context of travel within the EU, but certificates issued by health care providers on paper can also be used.

On 14 June 2021 the Council adopted Recommendation (EU) 2021/961 amending Recommendation 2020/1475 on a coordinated approach to the restriction of free movement in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Recommendation 2020/1475 introduced a five-colour map to designate areas of different risk levels (green, orange, red, dark red, grey). Recommendation 2021/961 raised the thresholds for classifying areas in different colours.

Moreover, the Recommendation sets out that minors should not be required to undergo quarantine/self-isolation where no such requirement is imposed on the person accompanying them, for example because the accompanying person has been vaccinated or has recovered from COVID-19. Likewise, persons whose positive test result dates back less than 180 days should not be subject to the requirement of self-isolation under their certificate of recovery.

This Order changes the requirements for arrival in Estonia and post-arrival self-isolation and related testing for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 if a person arrives from a Member State of the European Union or the Schengen Area or the European Economic Area or the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, considering the risk levels established by recommendations of the European Union. Persons arriving from said countries will be subject to different restrictions depending on the risk level of the country from where they arrive. The first category corresponds to the level ‘green’ in Recommendation 2021/961 where the 14-day morbidity rate per 100,000 people is up to 75. There will be no restrictions when arriving from such countries. The second category corresponds to the level ‘orange’ in Recommendation 2021/961 where the 14-day morbidity rate per 100,000 people ranges between 75 and 200. There will be no restrictions when arriving from such countries if the relevant person has been vaccinated or has recovered from COVID-19 or produces a negative test result.

The third category corresponds to the levels ‘red’ and ‘dark red’ in Recommendation 2021/961 where the 14-day morbidity rate per 100,000 people is above 200. In that case there will be a requirement for 10-day self-isolation which can be reduced by two negative tests (first test before or upon arrival in the country and second test no earlier than on the sixth day after the first test). There will be no restrictions when arriving from such countries if the relevant person has been vaccinated or has recovered from COVID-19 or produces a negative test result.

The state of being vaccinated or having recovered or a negative test result can be proved by a certificate issued under the EU Digital COVID Certificate Regulation or by a certificate that meets the requirements established by the EU Digital COVID Certificate Regulation for data set out on the certificate or by a similar certificate that proves the same important facts.

When the rules for free movement within the European Union were agreed upon the Delta variant was not yet prevalent in Europe and assessing the infection trend that has once again started growing and considering that states may apply restrictions based on new or dangerous variants, a requirement for self-isolation is imposed on travellers not in possession of a vaccination certificate or a certificate of recovery who arrive in Estonia from a country where the infection rate is more than 200; said self-isolation can be reduced by a second test on the sixth day. After the first negative test it will still be allowed to perform urgent duties or attend a family occasion.

Research has shown that the most effective travel-related strategy is re-testing. According to Synlab, every third imported case has been detected through re-testing. The Health Board analysed the data of 308 cases of close contacts and found that three-quarters of infected close contacts (76%) experienced symptoms within the first five days after contact and in 86% of the cases within the first seven days.

This Order introduces changes that concern the self-isolation requirement of minors where the person accompanying them is under no such requirement (for example, they have been vaccinated against COVID-19 or they have recovered from COVID-19). It has been found that children transmit the virus quicker3. They thereby also endanger adults and their close contacts with whom they come into contact4. According to the latest data, the COVID-19 morbidity among children over 12 years of age is no different from morbidity among adults. After having contact with an infected adult children under 12 years of age transmit the virus less5. Transmission of the virus is rising among children 10 to 12 years of age who have reached puberty6. Children are much more active and have more contact in various activities7.

On average, one infected adult has 1.1 to 2.2 close contacts but for children the number of close contacts may be as high as 24. A significant portion of cases has developed through hobby activities (practice, music schools, theatre, handicraft courses, choirs and orchestra rehearsals and so on). Children 12 years of age and older participate in practice, hobby groups and summer camps independently. In general, children experience the disease mildly, often asymptomatically, and they will thus not stay at home or contact their doctor. Over the past two weeks morbidity among children has grown higher in Estonia. For example, one infected child over 12 years of age went to practice, which resulted in 13 other children present getting infected. Children transmit the virus to their family members and from there it can spread to, for instance, places of work.

Amendments to the Order exempt children under 12 years of age from the requirement of self-isolation if they arrive in Estonia with their legal representative or a person authorised to accompany them who is exempt from self-isolation. According to the procedure currently in effect, children under 12 years of age are released from testing but they are subject to the requirement of self-isolation. Furthermore, amendments set out that when arriving from a country where the cumulative number of positive tests per 100,000 inhabitants is greater than 75, children 12 to 18 years of age arriving in Estonia with their legal representative or a person authorised to accompany them will have to take at least one SARS-CoV-2 test. Pursuant to the current procedure, children 12 to 18 years of age are subject to a testing requirement same as adults.

Amendments to the Order set out that the self-isolation and related testing requirements are not imposed on persons who have recovered from COVID-19 if no more than 180 days have passed since the SARS-CoV-2 test confirming the diagnosis was carried out or since the date of confirmation of the diagnosis. The current regulation provides that a person who has recovered from COVID-19 is released from the requirement of self-isolation if no more than six months have passed since the person was declared healthy.

Application of restrictions in an altered form and continuation with other restrictions and measures that are not changed by this Order are an efficient and proportional measure for the protection of the life and health of people and for ensuring public health and the continuity of the health care system.

The restrictions and measures imposed by the Order serve the purpose of limiting the spread of the coronavirus and the number of people getting infected and ensuring the continuity of the vital functions of the state. The restrictions and measures provided for in the Order have been carefully considered and it has been decided in favour of those that are more efficient than their alternatives in the context of the current spread of the infection based on currently available information. It has also been assessed that said restrictions and measures are fair and proportional in interaction of various fundamental rights and freedoms (e.g. §§ 12, 16, 19, 28, 31, 34, 37 and 47 of the Constitution). This means that the restrictions and measures as a whole affect all people for the purpose of public interest (protection of the life and health of people, continuity of the state).

The reasons for the measures and restrictions are set out in the Order and the explanatory memorandum to the Order.

Under § 44 (1) of the Communicable Diseases Prevention and Control Act, supervision over the requirements imposed by this Order is exercised by the Health Board. Failure to duly comply with measures for preventing the spread of the virus will prompt the application of the administrative coercive measures set out in § 28 (2) or (3) of the Law Enforcement Act. The maximum amount of penalty payment is 9600 euros. This penalty payment, which serves the purpose of enforcing the requirements, measures and restrictions imposed by this Order and preventing the spread of the virus, may be imposed repeatedly.

This Order can be appealed against by filing a challenge with the Government of the Republic pursuant to the procedure provided by the Administrative Procedure Act within 30 days as of the day the relevant person became or should have become aware of the Order. This Order can also be appealed against by filing an action with the administrative court pursuant to the procedure provided for in the Code of Administrative Court Procedure within 30 days as of the day of announcement of this Order.

The explanatory memorandum to the Order is available on the website kriis.ee.

1 www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/coronavirus-disease-covid-19-how-is-it-transmitted
2 eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/ET/TXT/HTML/?uri=OJ:L:2021:213I:FULL&from=ET#ntr1-LI2021213ET.01000101-E0001
3 www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/COVID-19-in-children-and-the-role-of-school-settings-in-transmission-second-update.pdf
4 www.jhsph.edu/covid-19/articles/outbreak-interrupted-why-testing-is-important-for-k-12-schools.html
5 science.sciencemag.org/content/371/6526/eabe2424
6 www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0962-9
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7386533/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7402051/
7 science.sciencemag.org/content/370/6517/691.full

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